Questão 16

(UFMG) Texto para as próximas 8 questões. 
After Capitalism 
The era of transition that we are entering will be disruptive – but it may bring a world where markets are servants, not masters. 
To understand what capitalism might become, we first have to understand what it is. This is not so simple. Capitalism includes a market economy, but many traditional market economies are not capitalistic. It includes trade, but trade, too, long precedes capitalism. It includes capital – but Egyptian pharaohs and fascist dictators commanded surpluses too. 
The French historian Fernand Braudel offered perhaps the best description of capitalism when he wrote of it as a series of layers built on top of the everyday market economy of onions and wood, plumbing and cooking. These layers, local, regional, national and global, are characterised by ever greater abstraction, until at the top sits disembodied finance, seeking returns anywhere, uncommitted to any particular place or industry, and commodifying anything and everything. 
Only a few decades ago there was great interest in what would supersede capitalism. The answers ranged from communism to managerialism, and from hopes of a golden age of leisure to dreams of a return to community and ecological harmony. Today these utopias can be found in the movements around the World Social Forum, on the edges of all of the major religions, in the radical sub-cultures that surround the net, and in moderated form in thousands of civic ventures across the world. 
(MULGAN, Geoff. Available at:<http:// 
The introduction to the text implies that, at present, the capitalist system: 
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