Texto: Nelson Mandela contra o Apartheid

Nelson Mandela contra o Apartheid

Você já ouviu falar de Nelson Mandela? Nelson Mandela já foi ganhador do Prêmio Nobel da Paz e é um grande aliado da luta pelos direitos humanos e contra a segregação racial. O texto a seguir foi extraído da NBC News e conta um pouco da trajetória desse ídolo mundial e seu legado. Vamos à leitura?
 

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7 ways Nelson Mandela changed South Africa
 
By Alastair Jamieson, Staff Writer, NBC News
 
Many years have passed since the end of legalized racial segregation in South Africa, yet the abolition of apartheid remains the biggest legacy of Nelson Mandela.
 
If you are young, you will not have witnessed the public separation of whites and blacks enshrined in law, yet that was the daily reality in a country where races had been kept apart since colonial times.
 
 
South Africa continued to enforce racial division, denying blacks the right to vote, until Mandela’s release from prison in 1990 allowed him to begin negotiations with then-president Frederik Willem de Klerk. Apartheid ended with the arrival of multi-racial elections in 1994.
 
This transformation was achieved almost entirely peacefully despite the country’s long history of racial violence and a brutal police force.

On his release from captivity in 1990, Mandela’s African National Congress continued its historic commitment to an armed struggle against apartheid.
 
The 1993 assassination of ANC figurehead Chris Hani by right-wing white extremists heightened fears that the country was destined for a racial bloodbath, but Mandela issued an appeal: “Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us.”
Here are six other ways Mandela changed his country:
 
Forsaking bloodshed
 
The renunciation of violence was one of the defining moments of the political process, and earned Mandela and de Klerk the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
 
Forging a political path
 
The transition formally turned South Africa into a democracy, bringing in one of the world’s most progressive constitutions and allowing blacks not only into polling booths, but also into the corridors of power.
 
In doing so, South Africa also lost its global pariah status. Apartheid had been punished by sanctions including a trade embargo and a ban on direct flights to dozens of countries, like the United States.
 
A global player
 
In his inauguration speech in 1994, Mandela heralded the country’s re-entry onto the world stage, saying it should become “a rainbow nation” that would never again be seen as “the skunk of the world.”
 
He said: “We enter into a covenant that we shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity - a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.”
 
Peace and forgiveness
 
Mandela’s biggest influence on the new South Africa was his personal determination that anger over the crimes of the past, including his 27 years as a political prisoner, should not motivate future laws and actions. Key to this was his 1995 establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission that investigated historic human rights violations and gave vent to grievances.
 
A cultural power
 
That same year, South Africa hosted the Rugby World Cup – the first event of its kind to be held there since the end of the apartheid-era sporting boycott. Along with cricket, rugby was a game played and enjoyed almost exclusively by whites, making the event tough for Mandela’s fledgling democratic government to “sell” to a wider population.
 
Despite resistance on both sides, Mandela swung the rainbow nation behind both the team – the Springboks – and the tournament, which South Africa won. That achievement, documented in the 2009 film “Invictus” starring Morgan Freeman and Matt Damon, illustrated the extent of South Africa’s rehabilitation and also set the country back on the path of sporting success.
 
A generous soul
 
Mandela’s other key legacy is his extensive charitable work, including the creation of the Nelson Mandela Foundation, the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund and 46664 – the HIV-AIDS initiative named after his prison number.
 
In 2009, the United Nations declared that July 18, Mandela’s birthday, would be a worldwide day of community service known as Nelson Mandela International Day.
 
 
 
 

Reading Analysis

Top 10 Vocabulary

  • To Achieve: Alcançar.
  • To Allow: Autorizar, permitir.
  • To Deny: Negar, recusar, desmentir, rejeitar.
  • To Enforce: Impor, forçar, obrigar.
  • To Enshrine: Consagrar.
  • Figurehead: Representante, líder.
  • Release: Libertação.
  • To Remain: Continuar a ser, permanecer, restar.
  • Struggle: Luta.
  • To Witness: Testemunhar.
 

Thematic Vocabulary (Política e Governo)

ballot (bálot) - votação
bill (bil) - projeto de lei
budget (bádchet) - orçamento
bureaucracy (biurókrasi) - burocracia
cabinet (kábinet) - gabinete
campaign (kampéin) - campanha
candidate (kándideit) - candidato
capitalist (kápitalist) - capitalista
centrist (séntrist) - de centro
citizen (sítissen) - cidadão
civil servant (cívil sérvant) - funcionário público
coalition (koualíshon) - coalizão
colonialist (kolóunialist) - colonialista
communist (kómiunist) - comunista
congress (kóngres) - congresso
congressman (kóngresman) - congressista
Conservative Party (konsérvativ párti) - partido conservador
democracy (demókrasi) - democracia
democrat (démokrat) - democrata
democratic (demokrátik) - democrático
Democratic Party (démokratik párti) - partido democrata
dictator (diktéitor) - ditador
electoral roll (eléktoral róul) - sistema eleitoral
electorate (iléktorit) - eleitorado
fascist (fáshist) - fascista
government (gáverment) - governo
ideology (aidiólidchi) - ideologia
imperialist (impírialist) - imperialista
Labour Party (léibor párti) - partido trabalhista
law (ló) - lei
left-wing (léft-uíng) - de esquerda
legislature (ledchisléicher) - legislatura
liberal (líberal) - liberal
minister (mínister) - ministro
ministry (mínistri) - ministério
monarchy (mónarki) - monarquia
nationalist (náshonalist) - nacionalista
opposition (oposíshon) - oposição
parliament (párlament) - parlamento
party (párti) - partido
policy (pólisi) - política, plano de ação
political (polítikal) - político (adjetivo)
politician (pólitíshan) - político (pessoa)
politics (pólitiks) - política
poll (póul) - pesquisa de opinião
president (président) - presidente
referendum (referéndom) - referendo
republic (ripáblik) – república
republican (ripáblikan) - republicano
Republican Party (ripáblikan párti) - partido republicano
right-wing (ráit wíng) - de direita
rights (ráits) - direitos
senate (sénit) - senado
senator (sénator) - senador
social pressure (sóushal présher) - pressão social
socialist (sóushalist) - socialista
suffrage (sáfridch) - sufrágio
supreme court (supríim kórt) - corte suprema
taxes (tákses) - impostos
to elect (elékt) - eleger
to govern (gávern) - governar
to run for president (rán for président) - ser candidato a presidente
to vote (vóut) - votar
voter (vóuter) - votante, eleitor
 
 
 

False Friends (Be Careful!)

  • former: ex, anterior, passado, antigo. 
  • valorous: destemido,corajoso.
  • sensible: sábio, sensato.
 

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs são verbos formados por duas ou três palavras (verbo + advérbio/preposição).  Os phrasal verbs são muito comuns na língua inglesa. Conhecê-los significa interpretar corretamente as frases e situações e também aumentar seu vocabulário! Adicione mais cinco deles ao seu estudo! 
  • add up: somar, contar.
  • call for: pedir algo.
  • run out of: ficar sem, esgotar, acabar.
  • send out: enviar.
  • wrap up: embrulhar.

 
Grammar Lesson: O uso de So e Such

So e Such são usados para enfatizar o que vem depois, seja um adjetivo, um advérbio, um substantivo ou uma sequência adjetivo + substantivo. Transmite a ideia de: tão, tanto, muito.
 
Vamos aos exemplos e comparações:

So + Adjetivo
 
I watched a movie yesterday night, but I didn’t like it. The story was so stupid that I could barely wait for the end.
 
Eu assisti a um filme ontem à noite, mas não gostei. A história era tão estúpida, que mal pude esperar pelo final.
 
So + Advérbio
 
Sara speaks English so quickly, and sometimes it is difficult to understand her.
 
Sara fala Inglês tão rapidamente, e às vezes é difícil entendê-la.
 
Such + Adjetivo + Substantivo
 
I watched a movie yesterday night, but I didn’t like it. It was such a stupid story, that I could barely wait for the end.
 
Eu assisti a um filme ontem à noite, mas não gostei. Era uma história tão estúpida, que mal pude esperar pelo final.
 
Such  + Substantivo
(like this = como este(a))
 
The politician said that the country no longer grows. Such a lie can’t be said!
 
O político disse que o país não cresce mais. Uma mentira como esta não pode ser dita!
 
 

Did You Know That?

Such + a são usados juntos em sentenças em que o substantivo é singular:
  • Exemplo: It was such a stupid story. (Era uma história tão estúpida.)
Mas usamos somente such quando o substantivo é plural.
  • Exemplo: They are such nice people. (Eles são pessoas tão (= muito) legais.)
 
Use: So + many/ much 
  • Exemplo: I have so many friends. (Eu tenho tantos (= muitos) amigos.) 
  • Exemplo: They have lost so much money last year. (Eles perderam tanto (= muito) dinheiro o ano passado.) 
 
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