Texto: As Armadilhas do Álcool

As Armadilhas do Álcool

 

Warm-up

Viva Saúde Adverte: Beba com Moderação

Os adolescentes estão cansados de ouvir ou ler essa tarja preta e séria que aparece minúscula nas propagandas de bebidas alcoólicas. Infelizmente, poucos levam a recomendação a sério. Resultado: 78% dos jovens brasileiros bebem regularmente e 19% deles já são dependentes do álcool.
 
Os jovens estão bebendo mais e cada vez mais cedo, o que aumenta o risco de boa parte dessa juventude desenvolver o alcoolismo. Essa equação repete-se em praticamente todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil, apesaar de as pesquisas sobre o tema ainda serem bem escassas por aqui.
 
O último Levantamento Nacional sobre o Uso de Drogas, realizado pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (Cebrid) e pela Secretaria Nacional Antidrogas (Senad), revela que o consumo de álcool por adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos já atinge 54% dos entrevistados e desses, 7% já apresentam dependência. O estudo foi realizado em 2004 e mostrou que entre jovens de 18 a 24 anos, 78% já fizeram uso da substância e 19% deles são dependentes. Para se ter uma ideia de como o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas na adolescência aumentou, no levantamento anterior, realizado em 2001, apenas 5% dos adolescentes pesquisados preenchiam os critérios para dependência do álcool. Segundo recente estudo divulgado pela Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), em comparação com os países da América Latina, o Brasil aparece em terceiro lugar no consumo de álcool entre os adolescentes. A pesquisa foi feita com estudantes do ensino médio e incluiu 347.771 meninos e meninas, de 14 a 17 anos, do Brasil, da Argentina, da Bolívia, do Chile, do Equador, do Peru, do Uruguai, da Colômbia e do Paraguai. Entre os brasileiros, 48% admitiram consumir álcool. (...)
 
 
 
 

Reading Time

Leia as informações abaixo e analise os dados relevantes.


What youth say about alcohol

 
Why youth say they drink
When asked why today’s youth drink alcohol, 51% report neither they nor their friends drink. Among reasons cited by youth for why teens drink, 41% say to have a good time followed by celebrate (30%). Nearly three in ten teens (28%) say they drink to get drunk, and two in ten teens say to feel good (24%) or de-stress/relax (21%). (Source: The Century Council, TRU, Omnibuzz February 2003)
 
 
Where youth drink alcohol
A lack of parental supervision appears to be the key ingredient in where today’s youth drink alcohol. When asked where underage drinking takes place, seven in ten teens cited parties with no parents at home, followed by 61% of teens saying drinking occurs at their friends’ homes when the parents are not at home. Other locations include parties in remote locations (48%), parties when parents are at home (43%), and at events (34%). (Source: The Century Council, TRU, Lifestyles and Marketing Study Wave 42, 2003)
 
The 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports a majority of current underage drinkers ages 12 to 20 who consumed alcohol in the past month said the last time they drank alcohol it was either in someone’s else house (54%) or their own home (31%). Additionally, 81% of these underage drinkers said they were with two or more people the last time they drank.
 
 
 
 
Where youth get alcohol
Family and friends are the leading source of alcohol for today’s youth. When 10-18 year olds were asked the question “How do you and your friends get the alcohol you drink?”, a majority (65%) of today’s youth who have consumed alcohol in the past year report family and friends as the leading source from which they get alcohol. (Source: The Century Council, TRU, Omnibuzz May 2003)
 
  • Youth report contributing family and friend sources include older siblings or friends, parents allow me to have it, and taking it from my home or a friend’s home without permission.
 
Overall, kids and parents alike identify the same sources of alcohol for today’s youth.  In a separate study, parents with children ages 18 and younger were also asked, “How do you think today’s youth get the alcohol they drink?” A majority (53%) of parents cited family and friends as the leading source of alcohol for today’s youth. (Source: The Century Council, Wirthlin Worldwide, Quorum May 2003)
 
Recent government studies among the nation’s youth have also confirmed parents as one of the leading sources of alcohol.  According to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the majority of underage drinkers (ages 12-20), 62%, report getting their alcohol from adults such as parents, guardians, other family members or unrelated adults. Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control’s 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey affirmed that 40% of students who reported past-month consumption said that they usually obtained the alcohol they drank by someone giving it to them; the prevalence of having someone give them alcohol was higher among females (46%) than males (35%).
 
 

Influence of parents
Despite being identified by youth as one of their primary sources of alcohol, hands down, parents are the most influential person or thing in a child’s decision not to drink at all or not to drink on occasion.
 
Eighty-three percent of youth report parents are the leading influence in their decision to not to drink alcohol. (Source: The Century Council, February 2012)
 
Regardless of the source of alcohol, youth report access to alcohol is easy. According to the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study 91% of 12th graders, 78% of 10th graders, and 58% of 8th graders getting alcohol would be “fairly easy” or “very easy”.  On a positive note, despite reported ease of obtaining alcohol disapproval of binge drinking continues to increase among all three grade levels (8th, 86%; 10th, 78%; 12th, 70%).
 
 
 
 
Talking about underage drinking
Parents and kids are talking more than ever about the dangers and consequences of underage drinking. Nearly half of parents (46%) report they have spoken with their 10-18 year old son or daughter four or more times in the past year about the dangers of underage drinking and a near equal number (42%) of youth ages 10 to 18 reported they spoke as frequently with their parents, grandparents, or another adult caregiver about the dangers of alcohol in the past 12 months.
 
Even better news is that kids are listening more than ever to their parents when they talk about underage drinking and are recalling their conversations.  In 2003, only one-quarter of 10-18 years reported having conversations four or more times in the last year with their parents compared to 49% of parents who reported speaking to their sons and daughters four or more times in the past year about the dangers and consequences of underage drinking. This represents a 62% increase proportionally in the number of youth who report discussing the dangers of underage drinking with their parents.

Unfortunately, it often takes a tragedy in the news to get the conversation about underage drinking started between parents and their children (54% and 47%, respectively). Other top conversation starters vinclude something seen on TV or a movie (49%; 41%) and someone else getting caught with alcohol or drinking (37%; 36%).
 
 
 
Why youth don’t drink
Sixty-six percent of today’s youth say they choose not to drink at all or not to drink on occasion because they don’t want to. Other leading reasons youth cite about why they don’t drink alcohol include:
 
  • it’s unsafe/unhealthy (62%)
 
  • it’s illegal (57%)
 
  • parents ask/tell me not to (54%)
 
  • it’s not cool (49%)
 
  • I’m afraid of getting caught and getting in trouble (24%)
 
  • and it would hurt my athletic performance (22%).
 
Source: The Century Council, TRU, Omnibuzz February 2003
 

 

Reading Analysis

 

Top 10 Vocabulary

1 - youth = the quality or condition of being young, immature, or inexperienced.

2 - underage = below the required or standard age, especially below the legal age for voting or drinking.

3 - leading = principal or primary.

4 - source = the point or place from which something originates.

5 - graders = students in a particular grade of school.

6 - alike = in the same or a similar manner, way, or degree.

7 - report = to give an account of the results of an investigation (into).

8 - fairly = moderately

9 - times = occasion when something happens or someone does something.

10 - caregiver = someone who takes care of a child or sick person.
 
 

 

False Friends (Be careful!)

 
  • parents = the father or mother of a personal or animal ≠ relatives = a member of your family.
 
  • report = a written or spoken description of a situation or event, giving people the information they need ≠ reporter = someone whose job is to write about events for a newspaper or to tell people about events on television or the radio.
 

 

Words Often Confused

 
  • new = novo (adjetivo - não varia em número)
 
  • news = notícia, notícias (substantivo singular apesar do “s”)
 
  • on time = na hora, pontualmente
 
  • in time = a tempo
 
  • on the way = a caminho (movimento)
 
  • in the way = no meio do caminho (obstáculo)
 
 

Pronunciation Analysis

 
  • neither = “níder”
 
  • youth = “iúlth”
 
  • allow = “aláu”
 
  • females = “fimêiols”
 
  • daughters = “dórers”
 
  • unfortunately = “anfórtiuneitli”
 
  • caught = “cót”
 
 

Spelling Analysis

Os sufixos -AL e -AGE são igualmente usados para formar substantivos derivados de verbos com o significado de “o ato de” ou “o resultado do ato de”.
 
  • RemovAL (remoção) - do verbo “to remove”
 
  • ReversAL (inversão) - do verbo “to reverse”
 
  • DrainAGE (drenagem) - do verbo “to drain”
 
  • ApprovAL (aprovação) - do verbo “to approve”
 
  • RefusAL (recusa) - do verbo “to refuse”
 
  • ArrivAL (chegada) - do verbo “to arrive”
 
  • MarriAGE (casamento) - do verbo “to marry”
 
  • PassAGE (passagem) - do verbo “to pass”
 
  • PostAGE (postagem) - do verbo “to post”

 

Grammar Analysis

 

Indefinite Pronouns

Os pronomes indefinidos podem ser substantivos (indefinite pronouns), quando os substituem, ou adjetivos (indefinite adjectives), quando qualificam os substantivos.
 
Os pronomes indefinidos são invariáveis e têm empregos específicos de acordo com sua forma (afirmativa, interrogativa ou negativa).
 
Os pronomes indefinidos existentes na língua inglesa são: some, any, no, every e seus derivados, especificados abaixo.
 
 

Some e seus Derivados

 
  • Some = algum(a), alguns, um pouco (adjetivo/pronome)
 
  • SomeBODY = alguém (substantivo)
 
  • SomeONE = alguém (pronome)
 
  • SomeHOW (someWISE - arcaico) = alguma forma
 
  • SomeTHING = alguma coisa, algo (substantivo)
 
  • SomeWHAT = alguma coisa (substantivo)
 
  • SomeTIME = um dia, um dia desses
 
  • SomeTIMES = às vezes
 
  • SomeWHERE = algum lugar (advérbio)
 
Some e seus derivados são preferencialmente usados em frases afirmativas, podendo aparecer em frases interrogativas que expressem convite, oferecimento ou sugestão, presumindo resposta afirmativa. É usado antes de substantivos incontáveis no singular.
 
 
→ SOMEONE is knocking on the door. (Alguém está batendo na porta.)

→ She was hot and I gave her SOME water. (Ela estava com calor e eu lhe dei um pouco de água.)

→ There is SOMETHING under the bed. (Tem alguma coisa embaixo da cama.)

→ Would you like SOME tea? (Você gostaria de um pouco de chá?)
 
 


Any e seus Derivados

 
  • Any = qualquer, nenhum(a)
 
  • AnyBODY = qualquer um, ninguém
 
  • AnyONE = qualquer pessoa, ninguém
 
  • AnyHOW = qualquer forma, nenhuma forma
 
  • AnyTHING = qualquer coisa, nada
 
  • AnyWAY (AnyWAYS, AnyWISE - arcaico) = qualquer modo, nenhum modo
 
  • AnyWHERE = qualquer lugar, nenhum lugar
 
ANY e seus derivados são preferencialmente usados em frases interrogativas e negativas. Nas frases afirmativas, ANY é usado após a palavra if, quando significar qualquer ou quando houver palavra de sentido negativo na frase, como seldom, never, rarely, without, hardly, hardly ever, not, etc.
 
 
→ He didn’t have ANY chance. (Ele não tinha nenhuma chance.)

→ I don’t have ANY money on me today. (Eu não tenho dinheiro algum comigo hoje. / Eu não tenho nenhum dinheiro comigo hoje.)

→ Did you see him ANYWHERE? (Você o viu em algum lugar?)

→ If you have ANY doubt, ask me. (Se você tiver qualquer / alguma dúvida, pergunte-me.)

→ She rarely has ANY free weekend. (Raramente ela tem algum fim de semana livre.)
 
 

No e seus Derivados

 
  • No = nenhum(a) (adjetivo)
 
  • NoBODY = ninguém
 
  • NONE = nenhum (pronome)
 
  • No ONE = ninguém
 
  • NoHOW = modo algum
 
  • NoTHING = nada
 
  • NoWAY (NoWISE - arcaico) = nenhum modo
 
  • NoWHERE = nenhum lugar
 
NO e seus derivados são usados em frases de sentido negativo. Enquanto o uso de NO e seus derivados existir na frase, não poderá ser usado outro tipo de elemento negativo na mesma frase.
 
 
O NO (nenhum - adjetivo) é usado junto com um substantivo, enquanto NONE (nenhum - pronome) não deve ser usado com substantivo.
 
 

Every e seus Derivados

 
  • Every = todo(s), toda(s)
 
  • EveryBODY = todo mundo
 
  • EveryONE = todos
 
  • EveryDAY = todo dia
 
  • EveryTHING = tudo
 
  • EveryWAY = todo modo
 
  • EveryWHERE = todo lugar
 
Os verbos depois de EVERYBODY, EVERYONE e EVERYTHING devem sempre estar na terceira pessoa do singular:
 
 
→ EVERYBODY wants to lead a better life. (Todo mundo quer levar uma vida melhor. / Todos querem levar uma vida melhor.)

→ EVERYONE was tired. (Todo mundo estava cansado. / Todos estavam cansados.)

→ EVERYTHING is getting easier.     (Tudo está ficando mais fácil.)
 
 
O pronome mais comum que se refere a EVERYBODY e EVERYONE é o da terceira pessoa do plural (THEY,THEM, THEIR, THEMSELVES). 
 
 
→ EVERYBODY enjoyed themselves at the party. (Todos se divertiram na festa.)
 

→ EVERYONE loves her, and she loves them, too. (Todos a amam e ela os ama também.)
 

→ EVERYBODY should learn their lessons thoroughly. (Todos deveriam aprender suas lições completamente.)
 
 
 

Did You Know That?

  • A língua inglesa não admite dupla negativa nas orações, coisa muito comum e, às vezes, obrigatória em nosso idioma. Enquanto, em português, falamos:
→  Não tenho nada a dizer.
    na língua inglesa diz-se:
→ I have NOTHING to say.
    ou ainda, em inglês, pode-se dizer:
      There isn’t ANYTHING to do in this city.
    o que, literalmente, significa:
→  Não há coisa alguma para fazer nesta cidade.
 
Desse modo, concluímos que, na língua inglesa, há duas maneiras de elaborar orações com pronomes indefinidos, evitando a dupla negativa:
 
  • I don’t have ANY money on me today. (Não tenho dinheiro nenhum comigo hoje.)

ou
 
  • I have NO money on me today. (Não tenho dinheiro nenhum comigo hoje.)
 
 

Did You Know That?

  • EVERY DAY = todo dia (advérbio)  She swims EVERY DAY. (Ela nada todo dia.)
 
  • EVERYDAY = diário, rotineiro, cotidiano (adjetivo)  Stress is just part of EVERYDAY life. (O estresse é apenas parte da vida cotidiana.)
 
  • EVERYONE = todos, todo mundo  EVERYONE is waiting for you. (Todos estão esperando por você.)
 
  • EVERY ONE (of) = cada um (de)  EVERY ONE of the books has a torn page. (Cada um dos livros tem uma página rasgada.)
 
  • EVERYONE BUT = todos menos  EVERYONE BUT Lisa got there on time. (Todos menos a Lisa chegaram lá a tempo.)
Já é cadastrado? Faça o Login!